Set of actions to create a translation of the text in the general sense can be called the translation process. In this case, the translator must go through several stages of the standard work: read the whole text, split it up into parts, and then work directly with each piece. To start the translator to extract all information from the source document, analyze and fully understand it, and then choose the linguistic resources for its translation. But make it's not as easy as it seems. First, we must consider the meaning of the whole document, not just individual paragraphs. And secondly, uncommon words, the translation of which is difficult – abbreviations, names, names, and so on. Clarify laws governing the transition from the original to the translated text is designed to translation theory.
Technical translation has its own characteristics. Likewise, literary translation differs own set of rules recommended techniques. The very process of translation occurs during mental activity of an interpreter. So that researchers can only represent and articulate the theoretical models of translation. In this sense the model consists of a set of mental operations by which it is converted whole document or some of its parts. Researchers have developed several models that describe the work mechanism of transmission information from one language to another. At the core of denotational models based on the following premise: all linguistic units describe the specific denotations (things, events, relationships).
And in each text necessarily contains information on denotation, or their combination. It turns out that in the translation process is necessary to describe the same situation as described in the source. If you submit a situational model of translation, the translation process takes place from the original text to real situation, and then the same situation communicated by means of another language. Reverse translation into German or English by a similar manner. Best of all, such a model of the translation process works in the case lack of an equivalent vocabulary. It may also be applicable when the choice of a particular variant of the translation of lexical items accurately determined by the situation. The second model of translation – the transformational-semantic. Here rule of law inseparable lexical items of two documents: the original and translation. It is believed that with the help of translation can proceed from the text of the original units to units of the final document. The model involves several steps. We first analyzed the syntactic structure of the original, and here is the simplification of structural forms. Ie complex vocabulary replaced by a more simple without losing sense. To this end, each element of the text associated with a simple analogy, close to the value of the word. At the next stage of the model components are replaced with words and expressions of another language. Finally, the last stage restructuring takes place. Created a proposal that meets all the rules of language translation and language norms. Formed the correct order of words in the sentence, choose the required form of the word, clarifies values, etc. This translation from English more objective. Along with an explanatory, descriptive superiority, he stressed the importance of linguistic units. Often the translators use this approach. Commonality between the two documents, the initial and final, allocated by units of language. Naturally, such a model of the translation process is not only true, universal. Despite the adequacy of the model, it does not include actions in the case lack of transformation, which can be applied to text units of the original.